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Retrospective Analysis of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Parameters in Participants of a Preventive Health and Wellness Program

Ken Fyie, MS, MA;  Mimi Guarneri, MD, FACC, ABOIM;  Samantha M Kimball, PhD, MLT;  Naghmeh Mirhosseini, MD, PhD;  Brian D Rankin, PhD

Lifestyle, dietary, and nutritional choices are important influencing parameters of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, the number one cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Our aims were to i) characterize CVD risk parameters using data from 7939 participants enrolled in a preventive health and wellness program between March 2010 and January 2017; and ii) evaluate intervention effects in 3,020 participants who returned for follow-up. Blood measurements (nutrient markers), CVD risk parameters (abdominal obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin resistance, and inflammation), glycemic status (HbA1c), and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed. Framingham and Reynold's risk scores were also calculated. After approximately one year of treatment (n = 3 020), mean arachidonic acid:eicosapentaenoic acid (AA:EPA) ratio, homocysteine, and HbA1c concentrations were significantly reduced; other risk parameters did not improve but mean values remained within reference ranges. Excluding participants taking related medications, 38.8%, 37.2%, 38.0%, 42.5%, and 59.7% of those with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL, insulin resistance, or prediabetes, respectively, at baseline no longer had the condition at follow-up. In contrast, of individuals within the reference range at baseline, new cases at follow-up were found for 10.1%, 12.2%, 6.3%, 8.2%, and 7.6% (as above, respectively). Regression models revealed a significant association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations =100 nmol/L and reductions in many CVD risk parameters after adjustment for confounding variables. These findings suggest that a preventive approach to health and wellness focused on nutrients, optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and lifestyle changes has the potential to reduce the risk of CVD.

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